Archive for category Group Activity

Table 21: Paragraph Comparisons, “Chrysanthemums” (Squaring Your Introduction and Conclusion Paragraphs Exercies)

Table 21 falls under the comment “Analysis” and “The FAVORS Step-by-Step Squaring Process.”

You may access the table by clicking on the “Analysis (Glossary Comment)” and “Case Studies” categories or by typing “Squaring Your Introduction and Conclusion” into the search box.

You may click the link to access the full discussion.

Table 21: Paragraph Comparisons, “Chrysanthemums” (Squaring Your Introduction and Conclusion Paragraphs Exercise)

Introduction Paragraph Conclusion Paragraph 
In “Chrysanthemums” John Steinbeck, the author, focuses on Elisa Allen, one of the main characters.  She is presented as weak in that her daily activity consisted of tending her garden of chrysanthemums; Steinbeck focuses on how they provide insight into Elisa and how she relates to them, religiously.  He implies that even though she fits a weak character, there are places in the narrative at the beginning that suggest some strong points and her longing towards the end.  There are a number of inferences that Steinbeck clearly illustrates how she is presented as weak and should therefore be discussed. Elisa is clearly painted as a weak character.  She is a lonely and detached woman.  The chrysanthemums created a distraction from her loneliness, her isolation because of the fence around her, and the feelings of inadequacy.  Towards the end she questions whether or not she is strong.  Steinbeck provides a clear insight into Elisa and her garden of chrysanthemums.  Henry places a protective hold on Elisa, just as she is possessive over her chrysanthemums. Elisa started out as strong, but ended up as weak and somewhat resentful to the fact.  

Group Activity

1) Critique the paragraphs.

2) On a separate sheet of paper outline the differences between the theses of both paragraphs.

3) Number the theses.

4) Determine if the parts of the introduction correspond to the parts of the conclusion.

5) Discuss your rationalizations.

Copyright 2011 Regina Y. Favors. All Rights Reserved.

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Figure 83: Sample Passage from Steinbeck’s “Chrysanthemums” (Squaring Your Analysis Exercise)

Below is an excerpt that falls under the comment “Analysis.”

You may access the comment by clicking on the “Analysis (Glossary Comment)” and “Case Studies” categories or by typing “Squaring Your Analysis” into the search box.

You may print the excerpt for class discussions.

Figure 83: Sample Passage from Steinbeck’s “Chrysanthemums” (Squaring Your Analysis Exercise)

“While the man came through the picket gate Elisa ran excitedly along the geranium-bordered path to the back of the house.  And she returned carrying a big red flower pot.  The gloves were forgotten now.  She kneeled on the ground by the starting bed and dug up the sandy soil with her fingers and scooped it into the bright new flower pot.  Then she picked up the little pile of shoots she had prepared.  With her strong fingers she pressed them in the sand and tamped around them with her knuckles.  The man stood over her.  ‘I’ll tell you what to do,’ she said.  ‘You remember so you can tell the lady.’”

Group Activity

Figure 83 represents the source text. It is an excerpt from Steinbeck’s work.

1) As a group, compare Figure 82 and Figure 83. I have included the excerpt below for easy access.

Figure 82: Essay Excerpt on “Chrysanthemums” (Squaring Your Analysis Exercise)

Elisa, inadvertently, let the visitor through the picket gate.  She ran to her flower bed gathering the necessary seeds for the pretend woman down the road.  She gives the visitor a complete description of how to plant the seeds and the daily activity that goes along with it.  After he tells Elisa that it’s not nice to see the stars and listen to the quiet without dinner, ashamed, she is forced to find something for the visitor to do.  The visitor’s manner changes and he becomes professional when Elisa brings him two old aluminum saucepans; “Good as new I can fix them. . . . His mouth grew sure and knowing” (Steinbeck 225).

2) Identify where the student’s summary or analysis is similar to the ideas expressed within the source text.

3) Identify where the student’s summary or analysis is different from the ideas expressed within the source text.

4) Based upon your evaluation, as a group critique the student’s essay.

Copyright 2011 Regina Y. Favors. All Rights Reserved.

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Figure 82: Essay Excerpt on “Chrysanthemums” (Squaring Your Analysis Exercise)

Below is an excerpt that falls under the comment “Analysis.”

You may access the comment by clicking on the “Analysis (Glossary Comment)” and “Case Studies” categories or by typing “Squaring Your Analysis” into the search box.

You may print the excerpt for class discussions.

Figure 82: Essay Excerpt on “Chrysanthemums” (Squaring Your Analysis Exercise)

Elisa, inadvertently, let the visitor through the picket gate.  She ran to her flower bed gathering the necessary seeds for the pretend woman down the road.  She gives the visitor a complete description of how to plant the seeds and the daily activity that goes along with it.  After he tells Elisa that it’s not nice to see the stars and listen to the quiet without dinner, ashamed, she is forced to find something for the visitor to do.  The visitor’s manner changes and he becomes professional when Elisa brings him two old aluminum saucepans; “Good as new I can fix them. . . . His mouth grew sure and knowing” (Steinbeck 225).

The keyword in this paragraph is “inadvertently.” The word “inadvertently” means in a careless manner; without intending to or realizing; not focusing the mind on the matter. I have highlighted the word by adding shading. If you are working from a hardcopy, use an actual highlighter on the text.

Group Activity

1) Refer to Steinbeck’s short story.

2) Consider Table 20:

Table 20: Assessment of Student Essay Body Paragraph Sentences (“Chrysanthemums”)

 Questions Student Essay Body Paragraph Sentences
 

Is Elisa doing this in a careless manner, without intending to?

 

Elisa, inadvertently, let the visitor through the picket gate.

 

Is Elisa doing this in a careless manner, without intending to?

 

She ran to her flower bed gathering the necessary seeds for the pretend woman down the road.

 

Is Elisa doing this in a careless manner, without intending to?

 

She gives the visitor a complete description of how to plant the seeds and the daily activity that goes along with it.

3) Rewrite the student’s analysis, removing “inadvertently” and applying an appropriate word that best reflects the ideas within the paragraph.

4) Include additional supporting evidence when necessary.

Copyright 2011 Regina Y. Favors. All Rights Reserved.

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Table 19: King’s Discussion of Just Law and Unjust Law in Table Form (continued)

Below is a table that falls under the comment “Analysis.”

You may access the comment by clicking on the “Analysis (Glossary Comment)” and “Case Studies” categories or by typing “Squaring the Author’s Text Within Your Analysis” into the search box. King’s work is subject to U.S. copyright law and is displayed here for educational purposes.

You may print the excerpt for class discussions.

Table 19:  King’s Discussion of Just Law and Unjust Law in Table Form (continued)

 Just Law  Unjust Law
“An unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a minority group to obey but does not make binding on itself.”
“This is difference made legal.”
“By the same token, a just law is a code that a majority compels a minority to follow and that it is willing to follow itself.” “This is sameness made legal.”
“A law is unjust if it is inflicted on a minority that, as a result of being denied the right to vote, had no part in enacting or devising the law.”
“Who can say that the legislature of Alabama which set up that state’s segregation laws was democratically elected?”
“Throughout Alabama all sorts of devious methods are used to prevent Negroes from becoming registered voters, and there are some counties in which, even though Negroes constitute a majority of the population, not a single Negro is registered.”
“Can any law enacted under such circumstances be considered democratically structured?”
“Sometimes a law is just on its face . . .” “ . . . and unjust in its application.”
“For instance, I have been arrested on a charge of parading without a permit.”
“Now, there is nothing wrong in having an ordinance which requires a permit for a parade.” “But such an ordinance becomes unjust when it is used to maintain segregation and to deny citizens the First Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly and protest.”

Homework Activity

Table 19 highlights gaps that exist within King’s discussion.

Using Table 18: King’s Discussion of Just Law and Unjust Law in Table Form, you developed an analysis by first constructing sentences on each row that best reflect King’s ideas and goals for the work. You also proposed a structure for the analysis by grouping sentences similar in meaning together. Last, you created and developed an analysis by adding topic sentences and supporting evidence.

For Table 19, you will insert historical context and critical views.

1) Evaluate the paragraphs you created during group activity.

2) Determine the primary purpose of each paragraph.

3) Research historical information. King wrote “Letter from Birmingham Jail” on April 16, 1963, in Birmingham, Alabama.

  • Therefore, research the year “1963.”
  • Research all of the events leading up to April 16th and after this date.
  • Research the literary criticism. What were the schools of thought? What did scholars have to say about King’s letter?
  • Research governing statutes of Alabama and local laws of Birmingham.
  • Place the information into categories to prepare sections of your analysis.

4) Evaluate Table 19 again. Determine if you can place some of the researched information into one or more of the boxes within the table. Reevaluate your analysis structure.

5) Insert quotes from King’s letter, historical context, literary criticism, and statute information within the appropriate sections of your analysis.

6) Revise the analysis you wrote for Table 18. Revise topic sentences. Revise quotes used for supporting evidence. Revise follow-up explanations, evaluations, and last-sentence transition statements. You may use one of the Analysis Methods as a guide.

Copyright 2011 Regina Y. Favors. All Rights Reserved.

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Table 18: King’s Discussion of Just Law and Unjust Law in Table Form

Below is a table that falls under the comment “Analysis.”

You may access the comment by clicking on the “Analysis (Glossary Comment)” and “Case Studies” categories or by typing “Squaring the Author’s Text Within Your Analysis” into the search box. King’s work falls under U.S. copyright law and is displayed here for educational purposes.

You may print the excerpt for class discussions.

Table 18:  King’s Discussion of Just Law and Unjust Law in Table Form

 Just Law  Unjust Law
“A just law is a manmade code that squares with the moral law or the law of God.” “An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law.”
“To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas:  An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law.”
“Any law that uplifts human personality is just.” “Any law that degrades human personality is unjust.”
“All segregation statues are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality.”
“It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority.”
“Segregation, to use the terminology of the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber, substitutes an “I-it” relationship for an “I-thou” relationship and ends up relegating persons to the status of things.”
“Hence segregation is not only politically, economically, and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful.”
“Paul Tillich” has said that sin is separation.Is not segregation an existential expression of man’s tragic separation, his awful estrangement, his terrible sinfulness?”
“ . . . and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they are morally wrong.” “Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme Court, for it is morally right; . . .”

Group Activity

As you can see there are gaps within King’s discussion. On the one hand, King provides a simple view of “just laws.” On the other hand, his view of “just laws” does not equally parallel his discussion of “unjust laws.”

As a group, develop an analysis:

1) First, construct a sentence that best reflects the ideas of each row. For example, in the second row, King offers “St. Thomas Aquinas” as an example. For your box under “just law,” offer an example.

2) Second, propose a structure for your analysis. Group sentences that are similar in meaning together. Determine if there is a common denominator between each row and use it as a guide for structuring your paragraphs. King’s discussion on “segregation” appears to be the common denominator.

3) Third, create and develop an analysis. Add a topic sentence. Insert quotes from the text as supporting evidence for your analysis. Only use the sentences of Table 18 as supporting evidence. Follow up quotes with both an explanation and evaluation. Develop a transition statement as the last sentence. You may use one of the Analysis Methods as a guide.

Click here for “Table 19: King’s Discussion of Just Law and Unjust Law in Table Form (continued).”

Copyright 2011 Regina Y. Favors. All Rights Reserved.

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Table 17: Comparison of Just and Unjust Law References in King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”

Below is a table that falls under the comment “Analysis.”

You may access the comment by clicking on the “Analysis (Glossary Comment)” and “Case Studies” categories or by typing “Squaring the Author’s Text Within Your Analysis” into the search box.

You may print the table for class discussions.

Table 17: Comparison of Just and Unjust Law References in King’s Letter

 Just Law  Unjust Law
Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust.

Group Activity

These two rows represent a balanced discussion. Therefore, since the author squares the ideas, you should also do the same.

1) Locate additional sentences where King discusses “just laws” and “unjust laws.”

2) As a group, construct a table similar to Table 17. Place the sentences under their respective columns.

3) Evaluate the sentences in light of the context King provides.

4) Develop a one-paragraph analysis based upon your discussion of King’s work.

Click here for “Table 18: King’s Discussion of Just Law and Unjust Law in Table Form.”

Copyright 2011 Regina Y. Favors. All Rights Reserved.

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Figure 81: Sample Excerpt from “Letter from Birmingham Jail”

Below is an excerpt that falls under the comment “Analysis.”

You may access the comment by clicking on the “Analysis (Glossary Comment)” and “Case Studies” categories or by typing “Task #4: Level” within the search box. King’s work is subject to U.S. copyright law and is displayed here for educational purposes.

You may print the excerpt for class discussions.

Figure 81: Sample Excerpt from “Letter from Birmingham Jail”

       Now, what is the difference between the two?  How does one determine whether a law is just or unjust?  1 A just law is a manmade code that squares with the moral law or the law of God.  2An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law.2 To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas:  An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law. 

1Any law that uplifts human personality is just.2 Any law that degrades human personality is unjust.  2 All segregation statues are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality.  2It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority.2 Segregation, to use the terminology of the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber, substitutes an “I-it” relationship for an “I-thou” relationship and ends up relegating persons to the status of things. 

2 Hence segregation is not only politically, economically, and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful.  2 Paul Tillich” has said that sin is separation. 2 Is not segregation an existential expression of man’s tragic separation, his awful estrangement, his terrible sinfulness?  1 Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme Court, for it is morally right; 2and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they are morally wrong.Let us consider a more concrete example of just and unjust laws.  2 An unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a minority group to obey but does not make binding on itself.  2 This is difference made legal.  1 By the same token, a just law is a code that a majority compels a minority to follow and that it is willing to follow itself. 1 This is sameness made legal.

Let me give another explanation.  2A law is unjust if it is inflicted on a minority that, as a result of being denied the right to vote, had no part in enacting or devising the law.2 Who can say that the legislature of Alabama which set up that state’s segregation laws was democratically elected?  2 Throughout Alabama all sorts of devious methods are used to prevent Negroes from becoming registered voters, and there are some counties in which, even though Negroes constitute a majority of the population, not a single Negro is registered. 2 Can any law enacted under such circumstances be considered democratically structured?

Sometimes a law is 1 just on its face and 2 unjust in its application.  1 For instance, I have been arrested on a charge of parading without a permit.  1 Now, there is nothing wrong in having an ordinance which requires a permit for a parade.  2 But such an ordinance becomes unjust when it is used to maintain segregation and to deny citizens the First Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly and protest.

Within the excerpt, we have placed a #1 by all sentences where King discusses “just laws.” We have placed a #2 by all sentences where King discusses “unjust laws.” The purpose of this exercise is to determine if King presents a balanced view of both types of laws within the context of his letter. King appears to present both sides of what an unjust law means and what a just law means. Although he presents two sides, is King’s presentation balanced? The keyword in King’s text is “squares.”

Group Activity

1) On a separate sheet of paper, draw two columns.

2) Write all of the sentences under #1 within the left-side column. Write all of the sentences under #2 within the right-side column.

3) Compare, evaluate, and discuss the sentences.

4) Develop a one-paragraph analysis on both “just laws” and “unjust laws.” Maintain the integrity of the letter by including only context-specific information.

Click here for “The Favors Step-by-Step Squaring Process.”

To view the full version of King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” click here.

Copyright 2011 Regina Y. Favors. All Rights Reserved.

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Table 16: Keep, Revise, Remove Suggestions for Body Paragraphs

Below is a table that falls under the comment “Analysis.”

You may access the comment by clicking on the “Analysis (Glossary Comment)” and “Case Studies” categories or by typing “Third Part: Abbreviating Analysis (Task #3: Abbreviate)” within the paper.

You may print the table for class discussions.

Table 16: Keep, Revise, Remove Suggestions for Body Paragraphs  

Actions Body Paragraph Analysis Sentences
 Keep It is also clear to say that the protection from the cattle, dogs, and chickens symbolizes protection from outsiders.
 Revise At the sound of his voice is when she can start.Henry never included her in any of his business.
 Remove(Abbreviate) It is evident that the fence that protected the flowers was put there also to protect Elisa.Henry protected Elisa in the same way she protected her flowers.

Everything had become so traditional that she had become accustomed to waiting until he finished his business to start her daily activity.

No one could get close or converse with Elisa.

She was best seen and not heard.

Group Activity

Step #3: Keep, Revise, and Remove analysis sentences falls under “Third Part: Abbreviating Analysis (Task #3: Abbreviate).”

To keep a sentence means that your sentences correlate with the events in the story. To revise a sentence means that you may have some parts that will be misleading to the reader, but you can easily rectify the problem with a word change, for example. To remove a sentence means that your sentence is filled with contradictions about events and implications that have no relation to the narrative itself.

1) For an in-class group activity, separate into groups of two to four students and exchange papers.

2) Evaluate the student’s paper.

3) Use the keep, revise, and remove techniques.

4) For each student’s paper, keep sentences that accurately convey the author’s point view, revise sentences that may might mislead the reader, and remove sentences that reflect contradiction.

5) Return the student’s paper and provide an explanation.

Copyright 2011 Regina Y. Favors. All Rights Reserved.

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Figure 80: Abbreviating Quote Exercise (Remove Quotes)

Below is an excerpt that falls under the comment “Analysis.”

You may access the comment by clicking on the “Analysis (Glossary Comment)” and “Case Studies” categories or by typing “Second Part: Abbreviating Quotes (Task#3: Abbreviate)” within the search box.

You may print the excerpt for class discussions.

Figure 80: Abbreviating Quotes Exercise (Removing Quotes)

Elisa continues to glance down at the tractor shed where the men where. There is an anxiousness in Elisa. Her “face was eager . . . mature . . . handsome; even her work with the scissors was over-eager, over-powerful.  The chrysanthemum stems seemed too small and easy for her energy” (Steinbeck 221). Steinbeck paints a clear picture as to how religiously Elisa tends her garden. She takes off her glove and places her hands down into the soil. She recognizes that her flowers hadn’t completely bloomed. She starts tending her garden at the sound of her husband’s voice. “He had come near quietly, and he leaned over the wire fence that protected her flower garden from cattle and dogs, and chickens” (Steinbeck 221). It is evident that the fence that protected the flowers was put there also to protect Elisa. It is also clear to say that the protection from the cattle, dogs, and chickens symbolizes protection from outsiders. Henry protected Elisa in the same way she protected her flowers. No one could get close or converse with Elisa. At the sound of his voice is when she can start. Everything had become so traditional that she had become accustomed to waiting until he finished his business to start her daily activity. Henry never included her in any of his business. She was best seen and not heard.

Group Activity

1) Remove everything before the topic sentence, which represents the first underlined sentence.

2) Keep the topic sentence.

3) Keep the quote that supports a statement the student makes directly before it.

4) Remove the lines after the underlined quote.

5) Locate the analysis. Abbreviate the analysis.

Click here for “Third Part: Abbreviating Analysis (Task #3: Abbreviate).”

Copyright 2011 Regina Y. Favors. All Rights Reserved.

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Table 15: Exploration of Option #3, Outline of Body Paragraph Sentences (Table Format)

Below is a table that falls under the comment “Analysis.”

You may access the comment by clicking on the “Analysis (Glossary Comment)” and “Case Studies” categories or by typing “Second Part: Abbreviating Quotes (Task#3: Abbreviate)” within the search box.

You may print the table for class discussions.

Step #6 falls under the Second Part: Abbreviating Quotes, which is section of Task #3: Abbreviate.

Step #6: Choose one option.

  • Option #1: Choose to keep the topic sentence and remove the quote and the follow-up explanations.
  • Option #2: Develop a different topic sentence for the quote and the follow-up explanations.
  • Option #3: Sort the sentences that appear to express the same ideas into sections. Think about the main idea of each sentence. What is the subject of the sentence doing? What is the subject of the sentence. Ask these questions during the process and provide an explanation for each section that details the main idea of each section.

Use this in-class activity as a guide for revising your own academic essays.

Table 15: Exploration of Option #3, Outline of Body Paragraph Sentences (Table Format)

Sections Main Idea Explanations (for Sections) Body Paragraph Sentences
 #1 This body paragraph sentence centers on a discussion of Elisa’s need to know what Henry is talking about with the two men in business suits. Elisa continues to glance down at the tractor shed where the men where.There is an anxiousness in Elisa.
 #2 These body paragraph sentences center on a discussion of Elisa’s work with the chrysanthemums. Her “face was eager . . . mature . . . handsome; even her work with the scissors was over-eager, over-powerful.  The chrysanthemum stems seemed too small and easy for her energy” (Steinbeck 221).Steinbeck paints a clear picture as to how religiously Elisa tends her garden.  She takes off her glove and places her hands down into the soil.  She recognizes that her flowers hadn’t completely bloomed.
 #3 These body paragraph sentences center on a discussion of Elisa’s husband’s voice. She starts tending her garden at the sound of her husband’s voice. At the sound of his voice is when she can start.
 #4 These body paragraph sentences center on a discussion of the wire fence. “He had come near quietly, and he leaned over the wire fence that protected her flower garden from cattle and dogs, and chickens” (Steinbeck 221).It is evident that the fence that protected the flowers was put there also to protect Elisa.  It is also clear to say that the protection from the cattle, dogs, and chickens symbolizes protection from outsiders.  Henry protected Elisa in the same way she protected her flowers.No one could get close or converse with Elisa.Everything had become so traditional that she had become accustomed to waiting until he finished his business to start her daily activity.  Henry never included her in any of his business.  She was best seen and not heard.

Option #3 is a much longer process. It may be too long for a five- to seven-page paper.  However, for a paper that runs ten to twelve pages or more, you will need this option. It is much more difficult to sustain the thesis throughout longer papers.

Group Activity

Rewrite the student’s body paragraph sentences.

Refer to Steinbeck’s work for guidance.

Copyright 2011 Regina Y. Favors. All Rights Reserved.

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